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Three Methods Of Manure Treatment In Farms

With the increase of environmental protection, many livestock breeding factories have begun to face the problem of livestock and poultry manure treatment and discharge. As for how to deal with livestock and poultry manure to meet environmental protection standards, there are currently three mainstream directions: 

  • Combination of planting and breeding 
  • Clean and reuse 
  • Discharge 

There are as many as 9 specific treatment modes, and each treatment mode has advantages and disadvantages. Through the following article, I hope that all breeding factory owners can find a suitable livestock and poultry manure treatment mode. 

Treatment of livestock and poultry manure by planting and raising combined mode

The full amount of manure returned to the field.
The livestock and poultry pollutants (feces, dung water, and sewage) produced by the farms are collected centrally and all enter the oxidation pond for storage and fermentation.
Oxidation ponds are divided into two types: open aerobic fermentation and film-covered anaerobic fermentation. The manure is stored in the oxidation pond after a period of fermentation, and used on farmland during the fertilization season.
Open-type aerobic fermentation is not popularized now because the air pollution index is too high.
The advantages of this livestock and poultry manure treatment method are that the cost of manure collection, treatment, and storage facilities is low, the organic matter in livestock and poultry manure can be fully collected, and the nutrient utilization rate is high.
However, the period of manure storage is generally more than half a year, and it occupies a large area, requiring a large amount of land to build oxidation ponds and storage facilities.
And it needs supporting specialized fertilization machinery, farmland application pipe network, mixing equipment, and other auxiliary facilities.
In addition, for long-distance transport farms, the cost of manure transportation is high and pollutes roads, so this method can only be used within a certain range.

Manure composting.
The solid manure of the breeding plant is mainly used for farmland utilization or the production of organic fertilizer after high-temperature aerobic composting and harmless treatment.
A solid-liquid separator is required for the preliminary processing of livestock and poultry manure. After long-term high-temperature aerobic fermentation, the livestock and poultry manure will produce relatively dry organic fertilizer.

  • Farms can sell organic fertilizer or return it to the field for utilization. This treatment method includes stacking, trough, silo, high (low) rack fermentation bed, and heterotopic fermentation bed.
    The advantage of this livestock and poultry manure treatment method is that the aerobic fermentation temperature is high, the manure is harmless treatment is more thorough, the fermentation cycle is short, no odor is produced during the fermentation process, and the composting treatment increases the added value of manure.
    It also requires infrastructure and a fixed site for fermentation. This method is mostly used in breeding plants with less sewage output such as cow manure, chicken manure, and sheep manure. For farms with large sewage output such as blister manure, additional sewage treatment systems are required.

Manure fertilization.
This method is usually used in conjunction with the method of returning the full amount of manure to the field. After the manure produced by the farm is treated and stored in the oxidation pond, it will be fertilized and irrigated in the farmland. The harmless treated manure is mixed with irrigation water according to a certain ratio, and the integrated application of water and fertilizer is carried out.
The advantage of this livestock and poultry manure treatment method is that after the manure is harmlessly treated in the oxidation pond, it can provide organic fertilizer and water resources for the farmland and solve the pressure of manure treatment.
However, no matter in the fermentation stage, oxidation pond fermentation storage stage or integrated water and fertilizer application stage, a large amount of land needs to be consumed as supporting support.
In addition, it is necessary to build a manure and water transportation network or purchase a manure and water transportation vehicle. For farms using this method, long-distance manure and water transportation are required.
Whether it is from on-road transportation or high transportation costs, it has become a new problem.

  • Manure into energy.
    Collect livestock and poultry manure, construct large-scale biogas projects, carry out anaerobic fermentation, and finally produce biogas residue, biogas slurry, and biogas, and use biogas to generate electricity or purify bio-natural gas.
    Biogas residues are used in organic fertilizer farmland, and biogas slurry is used in farmland or advanced treatment to meet the discharge standards.
    This treatment method is mainly aimed at the professional production of renewable energy, relying on specialized livestock and poultry manure treatment enterprises.
    Collect the excrement and excrement water from the surrounding farms, and centrally and uniformly treat the excrement and excrement water of the farms, reducing the investment in the excrement treatment facilities of small farms.
    The professional operation, high energy utilization efficiency. However, this method has a high one-time input cost, and it is difficult to use energy products; the biogas slurry is produced in a large and concentrated amount, and the treatment cost is high, so it needs to be equipped with subsequent treatment and utilization processes.
    At present, it is mostly found in large-scale farms or intensive farming areas. It has the conditions for biogas power generation to be connected to the grid or biogas to enter the pipeline network, and local government supporting policies are required to guarantee it.

Treating livestock and poultry manure with a clean reuse mode

Stromalization of manure
Mainly use organic matter such as livestock and poultry manure, mushroom residue, and crop straw as raw materials for composting and fermentation.
Combining livestock and poultry manure, mushroom slag, and crop stalks, the substrate plate and substrate soil are produced and applied to the cultivation of economic crops such as fruits and vegetables.
Realize the ecological circular production of zero waste and zero pollution in the agricultural production chain, form an organic circular agricultural comprehensive economic system, and improve the comprehensive utilization rate of resources.
This kind of livestock and poultry manure treatment method has a long production chain, a high degree of refinement technology, requires high overall quality of producers, and a long training and internship period, which is more suitable for ecological agricultural enterprises and ecological farms.

  • Littering of feces.
    This treatment method can be said to be exclusive to dairy farms. Based on the characteristics of high cellulose content in dairy cow manure, soft texture and low water content, the solid-liquid separation of dairy cow manure is first.
    Then carry out high-temperature aerobic composting fermentation on the solid manure, and the fermented cow manure can be used as a bedding material for cattle bedding, and the sewage can also be used as fertilizer for farmland after storage.
    This livestock and poultry manure treatment method uses cow dung instead of traditional sand and soil as bedding materials, which not only saves the operating costs of dairy farms, but also increases the bedtime of dairy cows with softer and more comfortable bedding materials.
    To improve the milk production of dairy cows, this method must pay attention to the killing rate of diseases and insect pests in cow dung. If the harmless treatment is not complete as litter, there will be certain biosafety risks.
  • Manure feed.
    The “feed” of this method is not aimed at the livestock and poultry manure itself, but composts and ferments the dry manure in the process of livestock and poultry breeding with animal proteins such as earthworms, fly maggots and black soldier flies to produce organic fertilizers It is used for agricultural planting, and the fermented animal protein such as earthworms, fly maggots and black soldier flies is used to make feed, etc.
    This method of livestock and poultry manure treatment has changed the traditional concept of using microorganisms to treat manure, and can achieve intensive management, low cost, high resource efficiency, no secondary discharge and pollution, and ecological breeding.
    However, the actual operation is complicated. Animal protein feeding has very strict requirements on the temperature, humidity, and air permeability of the breeding environment. Not only to prevent birds and other natural enemies from stealing food, but also the separation of organic fertilizer and animal protein in the later stage is also labor-intensive.
  • Fecal fuelization.
    Livestock and poultry manure is dehydrated after being stirred, extruded and granulated to produce biomass fuel rods.
    Biomass environmental protection fuel made from animal manure is used as an alternative to coal-fired production fuel. The cost is lower than that of coal-fired, reducing carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions, but the dehydration and drying of manure consumes a lot of energy, and the later maintenance costs are even higher.

Sewage up to standard discharge

Discharge of fecal water up to standard: This method is aimed at the sewage treatment of farms. UASB+A202 technology is used for advanced treatment of feces produced by farms, and it is gradually processed into biogas slurry, farmland irrigation water, and standard discharge water, while solid feces are treated Composting and fermentation are used for fertilization nearby or entrusted to others for centralized treatment.

This livestock and poultry manure treatment method can achieve standard discharge after advanced treatment of manure; there is no need to build a large manure storage tank, which can reduce the land use of manure storage facilities. However, the input cost is huge, and the input cost will also increase with each step of sewage treatment. It is difficult for ordinary farms to support such a large-scale investment.

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